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2021考研英语:主谓一致的语法分析

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2020-03-24 17:30

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  考研英语备考很多事情都要提上日程了,看看哪些是该注意的,下面由出国三分排列5—三分排列三网小编为你精心准备了“2021考研英语:主谓一致的语法分析”,持续关注本站将可以持续获取更多的考试资讯!

  2021考研英语:主谓一致的语法分析

  一、肯定否定一致

  下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定句变成否定句时,须作相应的变化:

  注意:“so/neither+助动词/情态动词+名词/代词”结构中须用倒装语序,

  如:My wife likes classical music very much and so do I. 我的妻子非常喜爱古典乐,我也是。

  She doesn't like jazz and neither do I. 她不喜欢爵士乐,我也不喜欢。

  二、代词一致

  代词一致是指句子中代词应在数、性、人称等方面彼此保持一致,

  如:One must do one's best to increase production. 员工必须尽全力增加生产力。

  Everybody talked at the top of his/their voice. 每个人都用自己最大的声音讲话。

  If anyone calls, tell him I'll be back in a moment. (him也可用him or her代替) 如果有人打电话过来了,告诉他我等会儿就回来。

  在写作中,如果表示不定的人,可以用you, we, one等,需要注意的是:同一篇文章中,只用同一个不定代词,而且所有格要与其一致。

  三、就近一致

  1. 当主语由either...... or. neither...... nor , not only ...... but(also) 或or连接时,谓语动词通常和最临近的那个主语一致。

  例如:Either you or he is to do the work. 不是你就是他来做这件事。

  Not only you but also Tom often comes late to class. 不光是你,汤姆上课也迟到。

  Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it. 孩子们和老师都不知道这件事。

  2. 当there be结构后面有并列主语时,谓语也和最临近的那个一致。

  如:There is a dictionary and many books on the table. 桌子上有一本词典和许多本书。

  There are ten chairs and a table in the house. 屋子里有十把椅子和一张桌子。

  Here is a pen, a few envelopes and same paper far you. 这儿有一支笔,几个信封和一些纸给你。

  这种就近一致的情况在非正式文体中越来越普遍。但在下列情况不提倡。

  如:Where is your mother and sisters? 你妈妈和你姐妹到哪儿去了?

  Is your sister and her husband coming to see you? 你姐姐和姐夫要来看你吗?

  One in ten are expected to take part in the contest. 预计每十个人就有一个要来参加这次比赛。

  3. 做主语的名词或代词后接with,together with,along with,as well as等短语时,谓语动词一般和前面名词或代词一致。这些短语前后可用可不用逗号。

  如:A woman with a baby is coming to the hospital. 一个妇女抱着个婴儿正向医院走来。

  The girl, as well as the bays , has learned to drive a car. 这个姑娘和那些那孩子一样也学会了开汽车。

  四、概念一致

  英语的一致有三种:主谓一致,代词一致,肯定与否定一致

  1. And连接的两个或多个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式

  His opinion and mine are different. 他的观点和我的是不同的。

  Bob and Peter are deadly rivals. Bob和peter是死对头。

  What she says and what she does are totally different. 她说的和做的完全不同。

  但是如果and连接的是指一个单一概念时,谓语动词用单数。

  Bread and milk has been my breakfast for years. 牛奶面包多年来一直是我的早餐。

  Her lawyer and old friend is going to marry her.她的律师和老朋友要娶她。

  All this effort and sacrifice has come to nothing. 所有这些努力和牺牲都白费了。

  由and连接的单数主语分别有many a,ever y,each,no修饰时,动词用单数。

  如:During the holidays, every train and every plane was crowded.假期期间每列火车及每架飞机都非常拥挤。

  No boy and no girl has the right to refuse education. 男孩和女孩都没有拒绝教育的权利。

  Man a man and man a woman was moved b this picture。许多男男女女都被这幅画感动。

  2.如果主语是一个抽象概念(如不定式、动名词、主语从句等)谓语动词用单数形式。如果主语是用and连接的两个或多个抽象概念,谓语动词用复数形式。

  如:Swimming jogging and cycling are all goad farms of sports exercises.游泳、慢跑和骑自行车都是很好的运动形式。

  To live to eat is not a very goad attitude toward life. 活着就是为了吃不是好的生活态度。

  To live to eat and to eat to live are very different attitudes toward life.

  以what,who,why,haw, whether等wh一词引起的从句做主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;由and连接的两个主句如果指两件事,动词用复数。

  例如:What he is doing is not clear yet他在干什么还不清楚

  What he is doing and whether I know him are two different things.他在干什么和我是否认识他是两件不同的事。

  What she told me is none of your business. 她和我说的什么用不着你管。

  What she told me and what she told you are totally different things.

  以what从句为主语的“主一系一表SVC"句型中,如果主句的表语是复数,主句谓语动词用复数形式;what从句本身是复数意义,主句谓语动词也可用复数。

  如:What I need buy now are four tea cups and a pair of sports shoes.

  我需要买的是四只茶杯和一双运动鞋。

  What were thought to be five dogs were actually five sheep.

  被认为是五条狗的东西实际上是五只羊。

  3.集体名词family,class,crew(全体船员或机组人员),crowd, group, committee, audience, government, public, team, staff, population等做主语时,若作为一个整体看待,后面谓语动词用单数; 如就其中每一个成员来考虑时,则用复数。

  例如: My family is a big one.我家人多。

  My family are all music lovers. 我全家人都爱好音乐。

  Eighty percent of China\' s population are peasants. 百分之八十的中国人口是农民。

  China has a huge population. 中国有众多的人口。

  The population of China is the largest in the world. 中国的人口是世界上最多的。

  People, police, cattle,(牛),militia(民兵),poultry(家禽),vermin(害出)等作主语时,后面的动词要用复数。

  4.不定代词either,neither,ever y,each,one,the other, another以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词只用单数,包括“every/each/no……and every/each/no……”作主语时。

  2021考研英语:独立主格结构的语法解析

  独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成。

  独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子。但多有名词或代词表示的逻辑主语,分词或不定式表示的逻辑谓语,有时还有其他修饰成分。(判断一个结构是否是句子的标准就是看看这个结构是否有谓语动词。)这种结构通常在句子中起方式、时间、原因、条件等状语或状语从句的作用,主要用于书面语。使用动词非谓语形式的独立主格结构可以改为句子形式(从句):独立主格结构加上连词,非谓语动词改为谓语动词形式,这样就成为从句了。

  例如:

  Today being Sunday, the library isn\' t open.今天星期天,图书馆不开放。

  (原因)改为从句:

  As (Since) today is Sunday, the library isn\' t open.

  例如:

  There being no buses,we had to take a taxi. 没有汽车了,我们只好坐出租车了。

  Because there were no buses, we had to take a taxi.

  The signal given,the bus started.信号发出后,公共汽车就启动了。

  (时间)改为从句:

  After the signal was given, the bus started.

  The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。

  The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,and had a sword in his hand.

  The mid-term examination is over, the end-of-term examination to come two months later.期中考试结束了,两个月之后进行期末考试.

  The mid-term examination is over, and the end-of-term examination is to come two months later.

  Weather permitting, we\' 11 visit the Great Wall.如果天气允许的话,我们就去参观长城。

  If weather permits, we\' 11 visit the Great Wall.

  The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。(伴随状语)

  上文例句中sword in hand是由“名词+介词短语”构成,表示伴随的情况。这种表示伴随情的独立主格结构,有时可以用with

  引出,二者的意思是一样的,with结构更加口语话,更加常用。

  She left the office with tears in her eyes.她眼里含着泪水,离开了办公室。

  The teacher walked into the classroom, with a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.老师胳膊底下挟着一把尺子,手里拿着几本书,走进了教室。

  The teacher walked into the classroom. He was holding a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.

  Tian\' anmen Square looks magnificent with all the lights on.华灯齐放,天安门广场显得美丽动人。

  With the boy leading the way, we found his house with no difficulty.由这孩子领路,我们毫不费劲地找到他的家。

  With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well.有他给我们带头,我们对一定能搞好。

  练习:

  1、指出下列句子中的独立主格结构:

  1) My work having been finished, I went home.

  ---My work having been finished

  2)The woman sat smiling, surrounded by her flowers, a faraway look in her eyes.

  ---A faraway look in her eyes

  3) My watch having been lost, I didn\' t know what time it was.

  ---My watch having been lost

  4) He came into the room, his face red with cold.

  --- his face red with cold

  5) There an elderly patient was sitting in her wheelchair alone, head bowed, her back to most of the others.

  --- Head bowed. her back to mast of the others

  6) A man came in, his face hidden by an upturned coat collar and a cap pulled law over his brow.

  --- His face hidden by an upturned…….

  2、 用独立主格结构改正下列句子:

  1) Being cold, he put on his overcoat.

  ---It being cold, …

  2) Being no bus, we had to walk home.

  --- There being no bus, ...

  3) Getting colder, same birds are flying away to the south.

  --- It getting colder, ...

  4) Being ill, Mr. Li taught the lesson in place of Mr. Wang.

  --- Mr. Wang being ill, Mr. Li taught..

  5) Asia is the largest continent, being about 43 million square kilometer.

  ---…,its size (area) being about 43….

  3、 用独立主格结构将括号内的汉语译成英语填空:

  1)Bing Bing entered the room, _____ (手里拿着一个大苹果).

  ---- (with) a big apple in his hand.

  2) _____(下课了),the children ran out of the class room.

  ---The class being over

  3) The little girl waited at the bus stop for a long time, _____(鼻子冻得通红).

  ---her nose red with cold

  4) Here comes the Shanghai train, _____ (从福州来的火车)

  ---the Fuzhou train to come half an hour later.

  5) He was doing his homework._____ (他的父亲坐在旁边)

  6) ____(谁也没有什么可说的), the meeting was closed.

  -----Nobody having any more to say.

  2021考研英语:系统的学习语法的技巧

  有同学可能会说,学习英语本来就够头疼的了,而且对于我们没有英语环境的学习者而言,学英语很困难,又偏偏要学习语法,这岂不是难上加难?事实并非如此,我们学习语法的目的就是为了把握英语的规律,从规律中总结经验,从而促进英语的学习。学习语法的好处之一就是可以缩短我们学习英语的过程。对于学习语法而言,其实方法很简单,问题在于同学们能不能坚持下去,不论是学习什么内容,只要你能坚持下去,那么你就是赢家。通过老师多年的学习经验而言,我觉得最重要的是在阅读中学习语法,然后再使用语法书进行巩固。

  同学们要知道的是,学好语法不仅意味着你能把所有的句子成分都搞清楚,而且我们还要经常锻炼我们的语感。语感怎么获得呢?那就是多读多背,只要同学们有时间,就可以抽出5-10分钟的时间阅读或者背诵,因此同学们一定要养成阅读的习惯。

  其次是在学习的过程中合理使用语法书。从广义上来说,语言是一个非常庞大的体系,语法是体系中的一个系统,而参考书则直观地将这个系统呈现了出来。有同学可能会说,学习语法是不是把所有的语法规则记住就行了?其实这个角度很片面,要是想真正学习语法,我们光记忆语法规则是远远不够的,还要将语法放到相应的语境中,带着语境学习语言和语法,这样对语法才会有更深的理解。

  除了语法规则之外,我们还要联系语境,这个过程则是可以通过我们上述的阅读来完成,在阅读中能够不断重现语法点,而且阅读还为我们提供了一个语境,这样才会让我们对语法有更深层次的了解。

  推荐阅读:

  2021考研英语词汇:cardinal的反义词分析

  2021考研英语备考:cancel的词义分析

  2021考研英语:candy的中文翻译分析


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  想了解更多考研英语网的资讯,请访问: 考研英语

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